Praries & Lakes
2010 Census - 4,104
2000 Census - 3,449
Caldwell, Texas
Caldwell Texas History:
In 1840, Caldwell was established as the county seat of the newly formed Milam County. The new town was platted by George B. Erath, and named for Mathew Caldwell. It was laid out parallel to the Old San Antonio Road. Caldwell remained the Milam County Seat until Burleson County was formed in 1846. Prior to the Civil War, Caldwell was a prosperous town of 300 residents, a post office, the Caldwell House hotel, several general stores, a blacksmith shop, a saloon, schools and a Masonic building. During the post-Civil War Reconstruction, a company of State Police was stationed in Caldwell. The Caldwell Register newspaper was established in 1878. A bottling plant and an ice house were established in the 1880s. The Gulf, Colorado and Santa Fe Railway built a line through town in 1880, enabling Caldwell to become a shipping center for the county. Caldwell incorporated in 1891. By 1905, six passenger trains arrived daily. The town’s 1940 population of 2,165 remained fairly constant until the 1970s discovery of oil in Burleson County caused it to swell. In 1990, Caldwell had 3,449 residents, and was a supply center for area agriculture, livestock and oil industries. Company E of the Texas National Guard was headquartered in Caldwell. This unit became part of the Thirty-sixth Infantry Division. In 1943, many soldiers of this unit were captured at Salerno, Italy and remained POWs until the war's end. Caldwell is located at the intersections of SH 21 (Presidential Corridor), SH 36 (Green Street), FM 166, and FM 975, 61 miles southeast of Temple, 30 miles southeast of Cameron, 26 miles southeast of Rockdale, 7 miles southeast of Chriesman, 35 miles southwest of Hearn, 27.6 miles southwest of College Station, 23 miles southwest of Bryan, 56 miles northwest of Navasota, 33 miles northwest of Brenham, 17.5 miles northwest of Somerville and Lake Somerville, 17.5 miles northwest of Snook, 13.9 miles northwest of Lyons, 46 miles north of Round Top, 50 miles northeast of Bastrop, 41 miles northeast of Ledbetter, 31.4 miles northeast of Giddings, 24 miles northeast of Lincoln, 25 miles northeast of Lexington, 17.4 miles northeast of Dime Box, 52 miles east of Taylor, approximately 57 miles southeast of Granger Lake (the lake), and 56 miles southeast of Thorndale, Texas.   
Historic City of Caldwell, Texas Historical Marker Text:
“In 1840 the Republic of Texas Congress annexed to Milam County all of Washington County north of Yegua Creek and west of the Brazos River. The name Caldwell, which honored Mathew "Old Paint" Caldwell, a noted pioneer and a signer of the Texas Declaration of Independence, was chosen for a settlement that would become the seat of a future county. Following a land title dispute, this site was selected for the proposed town. Located on the Old San Antonio Road, it had been settled earlier by Virginia native Lewis L. Chiles, a veteran of the Battle of San Jacinto who had operated a trading post on Davidson Creek. George B. Erath platted the town of Caldwell in 1840. Streets running parallel to the Old San Antonio road were named for native animals and intersecting streets were named for the commissioners who had selected the townsite. When Burleson County was created six years later, Caldwell became the permanent seat of government. Incorporated in 1891, Caldwell developed as a major agricultural shipping center with the completion of area rail lines in 1890 and 1912. Since the 1840s the city has played a vital role in the region through its steady commercial growth and rich heritage.” The marker is located on the Courthouse Square at Echols and Buck Streets.
Burleson County Courthouse, 1927:
The brick and concrete courthouse was designed in classical revival style by J. M. Glover. The historic Caldwell WPA Post Office Mural is located in the courthouse rotunda. The 2010 Burleson County census was 17,187. (979) 567-2333. 100 W. Buck Street, Caldwell, Texas 77836.